References of publications

1.         Stevens B and Anand K J. An overview of neonatal pain, in Pain in neonates., K.J. Anand, B. Stevens, and P. McGrath, Editors. 2000, Elsevier Science B.V.: Amsterdam. p. 1-7.

2.         Slater R, Cantarella A, Gallella S, Worley A, Boyd S, Meek J, and Fitzgerald M. Cortical pain responses in human infants. J Neurosci, 2006. 26(14): p. 3662-6. (pubmed)

3.         Bartocci M, Bergqvist L L, Lagercrantz H, and Anand K J. Pain activates cortical areas in the preterm newborn brain. Pain, 2006. 122(1-2): p. 109-17. (pubmed)

4.         Fitzgerald M and Beggs S. The neurobiology of pain: developmental aspects. Neuroscientist, 2001. 7(3): p. 246-57. (pubmed)

5.         Fitzgerald M, Millard C, and MacIntosh N. Hyperalgesia in premature infants. Lancet, 1988. 1(8580): p. 292. (pubmed)

6.         Simons S H, van Dijk M, Anand K S, Roofthooft D, van Lingen R A, and Tibboel D. Do we still hurt newborn babies? A prospective study of procedural pain and analgesia in neonates. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2003. 157(11): p. 1058-64. (pubmed)

7.         Barker D P and Rutter N. Exposure to invasive procedures in neonatal intensive care unit admissions. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 1995. 72(1): p. F47-8. (pubmed)

8.         Carbajal R, Rousset A, Danan C, Coquery S, Nolent P, Ducrocq S, Saizou C, Lapillonne A, Granier M, Durand P, Lenclen R, Coursol A, Hubert P, de Saint Blanquat L, Boelle P Y, Annequin D, Cimerman P, Anand K J, and Breart G. Epidemiology and treatment of painful procedures in neonates in intensive care units. Jama, 2008. 300(1): p. 60-70. (pubmed)

9.         Dyke M P, Kohan R, and Evans S. Morphine increases synchronous ventilation in preterm infants. J Paediatr Child Health, 1995. 31(3): p. 176-9. (pubmed)

10.       Puntillo K A. Pain experiences of intensive care unit patients. Heart Lung, 1990. 19(5 Pt 1): p. 526-33. (pubmed)

11.       Turner J S, Briggs S J, Springhorn H E, and Potgieter P D. Patients' recollection of intensive care unit experience. Crit Care Med, 1990. 18(9): p. 966-8. (pubmed)

12.       Kress J P and Hall J B. Sedation in the mechanically ventilated patient. Crit Care Med, 2006. 34(10): p. 2541-6. (pubmed)

13.       Barker D P and Rutter N. Stress, severity of illness, and outcome in ventilated preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 1996. 75(3): p. F187-90. (pubmed)

14.       Evans D J, MacGregor R J, Dean H G, and Levene M I. Neonatal catecholamine levels and neurodevelopmental outcome: a cohort study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 2001. 84(1): p. F49-52. (pubmed)

15.       Anand K J and Hickey P R. Halothane-morphine compared with high-dose sufentanil for anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in neonatal cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med, 1992. 326(1): p. 1-9. (pubmed)

16.       Bolivar J M, Gerhardt T, Gonzalez A, Hummler H, Claure N, Everett R, and Bancalari E. Mechanisms for episodes of hypoxemia in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. J Pediatr, 1995. 127(5): p. 767-73. (pubmed)

17.       Anand K J S and Hickey P R. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. N Engl J Med, 1987. 317(21): p. 1321-9. (pubmed)

18.       Anand K J, Sippell W G, and Aynsley-Green A. Randomised trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: effects on the stress response. Lancet, 1987. 1(8524): p. 62-6. (pubmed)

19.       Stevens B J and Johnston C C. Physiological responses of premature infants to a painful stimulus. Nurs Res, 1994. 43(4): p. 226-31. (pubmed)

20.       Pokela M L and Koivisto M. Physiological changes, plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol responses to tracheal intubation in neonates. Acta Paediatr, 1994. 83(2): p. 151-6. (pubmed)

21.       Grunau R. Early pain in preterm infants. A model of long-term effects. Clin Perinatol, 2002. 29(3): p. 373-94, vii-viii. (pubmed)

22.       Fitzgerald M, Millard C, and McIntosh N. Cutaneous hypersensitivity following peripheral tissue damage in newborn infants and its reversal with topical anaesthesia. Pain, 1989. 39(1): p. 31-6. (pubmed)

23.       Grunau R E, Holsti L, and Peters J W. Long-term consequences of pain in human neonates. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med, 2006. 11(4): p. 268-75. (pubmed)

24.       Orsini A J, Leef K H, Costarino A, Dettorre M D, and Stefano J L. Routine use of fentanyl infusions for pain and stress reduction in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr, 1996. 129(1): p. 140-5. (pubmed)

25.       Anand K J, Barton B A, McIntosh N, Lagercrantz H, Pelausa E, Young T E, and Vasa R. Analgesia and sedation in preterm neonates who require ventilatory support: results from the NOPAIN trial. Neonatal Outcome and Prolonged Analgesia in Neonates. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 1999. 153(4): p. 331-8. (pubmed)

26.       Taddio A and Katz J. The effects of early pain experience in neonates on pain responses in infancy and childhood. Paediatr Drugs, 2005. 7(4): p. 245-57. (pubmed)

27.       American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Committee on Drugs. Section on Anesthesiology. Section on Surgery. Canadian Paediatric Society. Fetus and Newborn Committee. Prevention and management of pain and stress in the neonate. Pediatrics, 2000. 105(2): p. 454-61. (pubmed)

28.       Anand K J S. Consensus statement for the prevention and management of pain in the newborn. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2001. 155(2): p. 173-80. (pubmed)

29.       Bellu R, de Waal K, and Zanini R. Opioids for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2008(1): p. CD004212. (pubmed)

30.       Anand K J and Ingraham J. Pediatric. Tolerance, dependence, and strategies for compassionate withdrawal of analgesics and anxiolytics in the pediatric ICU. Crit Care Nurse, 1996. 16(6): p. 87-93. (pubmed)

31.       Anand K J and Craig K D. New perspectives on the definition of pain. Pain, 1996. 67(1): p. 3-6; discussion 209-11. (pubmed)

32.       Carbajal R, Nolent P, Marchand A, Saizou C, Granier M, Lenclen R, Hubert P, Rousset A, Coquery S, Ducrocq S, Huon C, Lapillonne A, Durand P, Coursol A, de Saint Blanquat L, Cimerman P, and Annequin D. Continuous Sedation, Analgesia and Neuromuscular Paralysis in Newborns Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation: Multicenter Observation of Clinical Practices. in Pediatric Academic Societies' Annual Meeting. May 5-8, 2007. Toronto, Canada. E-PAS2007:61379 Available at [Sign in and type the E-PAS code in the search box].

33.       Rohrmeister K, Kretzer V, Berger A, Haiden N, Kohlhauser C, and Pollak A. Pain and stress management in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit--a national survey in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 2003. 115(19-20): p. 715-9. (pubmed)

34.       Gharavi B, Schott C, Nelle M, Reiter G, and Linderkamp O. Pain management and the effect of guidelines in neonatal units in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Pediatr Int, 2007. 49(5): p. 652-8. (pubmed)

35.       Debillon T, Bureau V, Savagner C, Zupan-Simunek V, and Carbajal R. Pain management in French neonatal intensive care units. Acta Paediatr, 2002. 91(7): p. 822-6. (pubmed)

36.       Lago P, Guadagni A, Merazzi D, Ancora G, Bellieni C V, and Cavazza A. Pain management in the neonatal intensive care unit: a national survey in Italy. Paediatr Anaesth, 2005. 15(11): p. 925-31. (pubmed)

37.       Eriksson M and Gradin M. Pain management in Swedish neonatal units--a national survey. Acta Paediatr, 2008. 97(7): p. 870-4. (pubmed)

38.       Gradin M. Need for a reliable pain evaluation scale in the newborn in Sweden. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 2000. 44(5): p. 552-4. (pubmed)

39.       Rennix C, Manjunatha C M, and Ibhanesebhor S E. Pain relief during common neonatal procedures: a survey. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 2004. 89(6): p. F563. (pubmed)

40.       Stark A R. Levels of neonatal care. Pediatrics, 2004. 114(5): p. 1341-7. (pubmed)

41.       National Ethics Advisory Committee N Z. Ethical Guidelines for Observational Studies: Observational Research, Audits and Related Activities. This document is available from, 2006.